Characteristic red mountain culture jade

In the development process of prehistoric jade in China, Hongshan culture jade occupies a very important position. Hongshan culture is distributed in southeastern Inner Mongolia, western Liaoning and northern Hebei. The most striking and distinctive feature of Hongshan cultural relics is jade. Its styling characteristics, carving techniques and self-contained system with jade system have distinct regional and contemporary characteristics. It is the main symbol of the prehistoric jade carving and use in the northeastern region, and thus makes the Northeast region the focus of Chinese prehistoric jade research. One of the regions.

The Hongshan culture jade articles were discovered very early. They were recorded in some books at home and abroad in the early 20th century, but their ages were set in the Shang and Zhou dynasties or later. Before the 1960s, although the Hongshan culture was officially named, archaeological excavations did not unearth jade. Local museums such as Chifeng in Inner Mongolia and Chaoyang in Liaoning have a small collection of handedong Hongshan culture jade articles, but they have not defined their cultural nature and age, and have not attracted the attention of the academic circles. In the 1970s and 1980s, archaeologists excavated and collected a number of jade articles in the Hongshan cultural sites and tombs in Inner Mongolia and Liaoning, and the materials were gradually enriched. The main discoveries of Hongshan culture jade in this period were: the dark green jade dragon unearthed from the Samsung Tara Village in Wengniute Banner, Inner Mongolia, and the jade pig dragon and hoop collected from the ruins of Gejiayingzi, Jianshanzi and Nastai in Bahrain Right Banner. More than 100 jade articles such as the shape of the device: Liaoning Fuxin Hutougou, Lingyuan Sanguandianzi Hongshan Culture Shijie Tomb unearthed jade hook cloud shape, jade pig dragon, jade hoop shape, etc.; Lingyuan and Jianping junction of Niuhe A large number of jade articles were unearthed from the tomb of the stone ruins. Among them, Niuheliang jade is rich in variety, with outstanding modeling features and excellent carving techniques, representing the highest level of Hongshan culture jade carving industry. In the 1990s, the study of Hongshan culture jade began to enter the depth stage, and the comprehensive or thematic discussion was very rich, and the research methods tend to be diversified. The study of the Hongshan culture jade as the origin of civilization in the Xiliao River Basin, as well as the geological study of the Hongshan culture jade material and the exploration of the jade mine, have achieved remarkable results. The Hongshan culture jade articles handed down from museums at home and abroad are also accurately identified based on archaeological data and published in the form of catalogues. In addition, a large number of Hongshan culture jade artifacts also flooded the antique market at home and abroad during this period.

The tombs of the unearthed Hongshan culture jade are mainly made of stone-built tombs. They are mostly distributed on the top of mountain beams or mounds. The shapes are square and round, while others are arranged side by side. A strong religious ritual atmosphere. The most prominent feature of these stone scorpions is that they only bury the jade, do not bury or basically bury the pottery and stone tools. For example, there are 61 tombs buried in the Niuheliang site, and 31 tombs with funerary objects. Among them, there are only 26 tombs of jade burial, accounting for 83.9% of the tombs of funerary objects: one with the burial jade and one tomb with stoneware or pottery. 3.2%: Only 3 burial pottery tombs, accounting for 9.7%. Some scholars call this phenomenon "only jade for funeral", which is a direct reflection of religious beliefs at that time. Popular in the Hongshan culture period is the primitive shamanism. The main belief is that all things are eternal, the soul is immortal, and worship is multi-god. The universe is divided into upper, middle and lower bounds. The upper bound is the god and the middle is the human. Living, the lower bound is the ghost and ancestral soul. The shaman is a middleman who interacts with ghosts and gods. He acts as a god media and performs witchcraft to help people fight for disasters.

The tomb of the Red Mountain Cultural Tomb is the priest who presides over various sacrificial activities, that is, the wizard, which is also the "Red Mountain Shaman." A jade man was unearthed from the No. 4 tomb of Niuheliang's 16th location. The brow was wrinkled, his eyes were half-closed, his mouth was half-folded, his arms were bent over his chest, his legs were standing sideways, his forehead was sunken, his navel was convex, and he was stunned. The expression of a demon possession into an obsessed state is undoubtedly the image of the Red Mountain shaman practice. The concept of "one person alone" and the monopoly of jade use reflected in the tombs of Hongshan Shaman indicate that the shaman was a privileged class in the social organization at that time. The shaman in the tomb was buried under the shaman's clothes in his life, and the jade ornaments and other implements were also buried. It is conceivable that the jade in the tomb of Hongshan is only one of the many implements of the shaman. Other implements should also include wooden, leather and fabric utensils, but they do not exist because of the age. The most important thing in Hongshan culture jade is three kinds of shapes, namely jade hoop shape, jade hook cloud shaper and jade pig dragon. The tombs of the three kinds of jade unearthed are often the center of the tomb, which is located in a prominent position in the cemetery and has the highest identity.

The focus here is on the styling characteristics and cultural implications of the jade hoop.

The jade hoop has a flat cylindrical shape with a straight belly wall, a flat mouth at one end and a long oblique mouth at the other end. The jade is generally green or yellowish green with a grayish white enamel. Two symmetrical circular holes are usually drilled near the edge of the flat mouth, and the individual bodies are not drilled. Judging from the unearthed position, most of the jade hoops are placed on the head of the tomb owner, and some are placed on the chest or shoulders of the tomb owner. From the point of view of use, the jade hoop is actually a shaman cap on the top of the Red Mountain Shaman. It is an important part of the shaman logo to show the boundaries and orientations of the various gods and shamans. Express the characteristics of the content of the faith, the genre and the level of shaman identity. It can be seen from the Shaman practice in the Qing Dynasty that the shaman's hat is a bird-shaped ornament with a cross-shaped bracket on top and two long braided ribbons on the top. In the shaman experience, these streamers that are constantly shaking in front of the shaman help the shaman to enter a coma. Most of the Hongshan culture jade hoops are unearthed under the skull of the tomb owner. Although their use is different, it must be related to the crown cap. It may be regarded as the cap of the Red Mountain Shaman. It is not known whether the Red Mountain Shaman wears a cross and a long scorpion streamer. However, judging from the small size of the jade hoop and the large mouth, it should be that the jade hoop is erected on the top of the head and the bundle is long. The hair passes through the cylinder, and it is scattered behind the brain, and it plays the role of a long scorpion streamer. The hole drilled at the lower end of the jade hoop is used to fix the cap on the hairpin. A humanoid ornament was unearthed from the Zhaobaogou Cultural Relics in Banyan Mountain, Banyan Mountain, Inner Mongolia Wengniute Banner. There is a protruding pillar on the head, which can be regarded as the shaman image of the hoop-shaped hoop.

In the Hongshan culture jade group, the jade hoop type is a larger type of body, the height is generally between 10-15 cm, and the longest is up to 18.6 cm, which has high requirements in material selection. In the process of carving, the cylindrical jade material needs to be hollowed out in the middle, and the inner and outer walls are polished in a large area. The carving process is quite complicated and difficult. These jade articles were not found in the prehistoric cultural sites in the northeastern region, which were earlier than the Hongshan culture or the age. It can be considered that the jade hoops are unique to the Hongshan culture.

Recently, the collection of Hongshan culture jade articles has heated up, and various auction companies are also competing to launch auctions of Hongshan culture jade, such as Yuying and Yulong, which will undoubtedly be in jade lovers, especially Hongshan culture jade. The collectors have attracted special attention and may trigger a new round of climax of the collection and price of Hongshan culture jade.

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